Type Of Cattle Feed Raw Material Source Of Protein

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What Are The Raw Material For Animal Feed That Can Be Used As A Source Of Protein In Livestock Rations?

Animal feed is a major component in supporting the success of good breeding farm, breeding cattle, nor the pattern be fattening and fattening the dipedesaan or more familiar with the term cow kereman. Even poultry accounted for approximately 70% of the production cost, just imagine if the feed given turns out to be less nice and expensive but less good for cattle growth will cause swelling production costs which is very significant.

For that's very necessary if the breeder and the prospective breeder equip themselves with various information about the raw material feeding, nutrition and animal feed raw material that is not less important is the price of each type of raw material for animal feed These can vary from one region to the other.

Knowledge of the content of a particular type of material feed nutrients will be very useful in drawing up the fodder rations, whether to compile comboran ration on the cows, feed ration dry to beef or homemade rations for livestock poultry such as chicken and quail.

Knowledge about the price will also be very useful in order to feed or ration arranged still have economic value and in line with the growth of cattle and livestock selling price at the moment of harvest. Do not let the cattle look nice or growing production high but after taken into account all the costs the result even loss because the cost of feed is very expensive.

This time who will try to source raw material discussed is animal feed that could be classified as a protein source, anything? Check out his below.

Raw material source of protein is high protein feed. Such materials could be derived from animals (animal) and plants (plant-based). The source of protein fodder ingredients e.g. soy for cake for cake for cake, coconut, peanuts, rubber seed flour, flour of fish, prawns, flour and flour meat. Proteins as a food substance that is essential for the body because it serves as a fuel in the body also serves as a builder and regulator substances (Winarno,1991). The use of protein feed materials will require high costs so that requires some consideration in granting to the ruminant animal feed. Protein is a critical food substances, especially for the young-old cattle, cattle are growing fast, and adult cattle sperti dairy cows that are currently producing high. The use of protein optimally should be included in the system of feeding of a practical source of protein because it is generally more expensive than the price of feed materials, energy sources and waste use increases the cost of livestock production. Quality livestock feed must contain sufficient amounts of protein because protein has a very important role for the growth or development of the cattle.

The feed material is a source of protein feed materials:

Coarse fiber < 18%
Rough > protein 20%

Material feed can be a source of protein:
  • Vegetable protein, derived from plants: beans, for cake (plant oil factory follow-up results)
  • Animal protein
The feed material is anything that can be eaten and digested can partially or completely without interfering with the health of cattle that ate it. Pet livestock in order to grow healthy and strong, very needed feeding. The feed has a crucial role for the cattle, both for the growth of young cattle as well as for sustaining life and produce (milk, child, meat) as well as power for adult cattle. Other functions of the fodder is to maintain the body's endurance and health. In order to make cattle grow as expected, the type of feed given to cattle have to be of fine quality and in sufficient quantities.

Feed Of Source Of Protein From Animal

Used as a supplement to the monogastrik feed basalnya feed from grains/plant (vegetable)
Balance of amino acids (methionine, lysin, trypsin) and vitamin B12, Ca and P
Need for monogastrik
For the herbivores, especially ruminants, need not
Prices are expensive (small amounts)
Unidentified growth factors & hatchability
The Origins Of Livestock

Especially given when not yet weaned
Excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals, and lactose
Chemical composition:

BK: 12% EE: 25%
PK: 29.2% Ash: 5.8%

SK: – BETN: 40.0%

Animal Flour

The raw material comes from the remains of livestock in RPH

Protein source & minerals

Especially for poultry swine &

Nutrient composition varies, depending on the raw material

Flour The Meat (Meat Meal)

Cracker flour such as animals, remnants of flesh

Yet many remain unanswered

Protein source & vitamin B12

Chemical composition:

BK: 91.8% EE: 12.3%

PK: 87.3% Ash: 0.4%


Flour Of Blood (Blood Meal)

Raw materials obtained in slaughterhouse

Source of protein

Deficiency of isoleucine, arginine, methionine

CA & P low

Livestock blood volume 7 – 9% W

The use of 2-3% in the ration

Chemical composition:

BK: 90% EE: 1.8%

PK: 93.5% Gray: 4.7%


Meat-Bone Flour (Meat Bone Meal)

Made from cattle from the farm great afkir (e.g. Australia)

In addition to containing the bones of starch, nutrient content also depends on the way of processing:

Braised → PKnya levels still high

burned → only vast gardens

The Origin Of The Fish

Fish Meal

The raw material of sea fish/fresh or its remnants

Depending on the kinds of quality fish and processing

Mostly for poultry rations, not more than 10%

AA: Arginine, glycine, leucine, valine

Chemical composition:

BK: 84,6% EE: 10.2%

PK: 74.8% Ash: 14.2%

SK: 0.6% 0.2%: ETN

The quality of fish meal processing way specified, extracted or not, given the content of the raw material vary EE

Type Of Fish:

a. Low oil – low protein

5% < < 15%

b. Low oil – high protein

5% 15 – 20%

c. Low oil – very high protein

< 5% > 20%

d. Medium oil – high protein

5 – 15% 15 – 20%

e. low oil – High protein

15% > < 15%

Shrimp Flour

The raw materials most of the head and skin of the shrimp (shrimp fresh/sea)

Shrimp flour scarce

The head of the shrimp ± 44% a shrimp

The high mineral content

Chemical composition:

BK: 85.6% EE: 3.2%

PK: 54.2% Ash: 29.3%

SK: 13.3% ETN: –

At the head of the shrimp contain chitin undigested

The shrimp whole (whole) contains ± 10% chitin

The head contains shell ± & 50% chitin


Results fur 16% of poultry; can be used as a source of protein

Feather proteins called: keratin; contains 14 – 15% cystine, highly soluble & Digest

→ hydrolyzed first, cooked with autoclav with vapor pressure of 15 – 20 lb for 1 hour (345 kPa)

→ dried and grinded → digestibility reaches 70 – 80%

Autoclaving decrease cystine 5 – 6%

Deficiency: lysine, methionine, tryptophan

The chemical composition of the feathers that have been hydrolyzed:

BK: 93% EE: 3.9%

PK: 91.4% Ash: 3.8%

SK: 0.4% 0.5%: ETN

Waste Of Livestock

The Contents Of The Rumen

Ruminant livestock waste

The contents of the rumen of cow weight 350 kg → kg ± 30 → drained, made silage

Can be pressed, dried poultry feed to filtratnya, while the residunya (fibres) can be used to feed ruminants

The Results Of The Chicken Farm

The result of the chicken Ranch there are 2:

Chicken manure (poultry manure).

→ drained can mix for forage (dried poultry manure = DPM)

Chicken manure mixed with fur etc. (poultry waste)

→ for mixed dried fodder (dried poultry waste = DPW)

Single Cell Protein

Is protein (biomass) produced rapidly per unit of time

Inorganic n (NPN) + energy source (KH non structural) → protein (organic N)

The cost of installing expensive → avoid toxic/pathogenic bacteria contamination

Biological value of protein is low, because it consists of nucleic acids, digestibility of low (monogastrik)

Usage: hog 10 – 15%, 20% of poultry, milk replacer > 25%

a. Bacteria

For example: Methanomonas methanica S.

Methan as source of energy + water + mineral + urea + air → biomass
Handling of waste production → 12 g wet SCP/3 days/liter

b. Algae

For example: Chlorela vulgaris (medium acid)

Separation of centrifugasi, spirulina maxima (medium salt, alkalis)

Filtering (14 g dry/m2/day)

c. Yeast

For example: Petroleum yeast Candida → lypolytica

Residual paraffin oil purification fermented (1.6 g/l; CP 64%)

Crude oil → 10% 90% + paraffin oil fermented, separation centrifugasi (CP 69%)

Please note that, the fulfillment of the needs of protein derived from animal protein has superior qualities compared with administering the protein derived from vegetable protein. Animal protein contains essential amino acids as well as the nutritional value is more complex. Food ingredients that contain high-quality protein food protein is constituted is approaching the order of body protein, for example animal protein. Another advantage of these proteins is animal protein more easily processed into body tissues with a smaller risk of loss compared with vegetable protein.

Protein needs on ruminant livestock, such as cows, not so requires high-quality protein quality because in the rumen or intestinal decomposition activity occurs by a lot of microorganisms contained within. Noteworthy in this regard is to rebuild the protein that has been broken down, then it takes a complete amino acid protein is constituted. Therefore, if a pet cow forced only given feed Hay, so to meet the needs of a substances are not contained on the straw must be provided through an additional feed berkandunganprotein, fats, and carbohydrates. In addition, animal feed in the form of straw contain a lot of rough fiber that is not easily digestible and only very little protein, fat, and carbohydrates.

Protein Source The Origin Of The Plants


Soy bean (Glycine max) the highest value as a feed ingredient, because the levels of PK and amino acids of high essensialnya

Soy protein called glycinine; order approaching protein milk → caseine from plants

Glycinine lycine content & trypthopan → high

For poultry, dairy cows, pigs on a pig fat → software

Storage of soy beans, water levels < 15%

The giving: broken/milled

For the beef: doesn't need to be heated first

For poultry swine &: must be heated to remove the factor of the decline in the value of the feed

Granting on beef in large quantities vitamin A plus: need

Soy that has been pounded not can be stored in hot climates

Soy contains: Trypsin inhibitor

To prevent the activity of the digestive enzymes trypsin, kedele raw beans are heated, but don't be too long, because heat & will damage the amino acids of life

: Urease enzymes that can release ammonia from urea → raw soybeans should not be given together with urea in cattle

The results of the analysis:

BK = 88% EE = 16%
PK = 38% Ash = 5.8%
SK = 8% = 32% ETN

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Highest levels of fat between the nuts

The price of expensive → rarely given to cattle → human consumption

Moldy peanuts → toxic (poisonous)

Aflatoxin in peanuts

Aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergilus flavus marked bean will be lost colors → pale/white

The fungus grows in temperatures of 30 – 35 ° c

When a waterproof:

nuts: > 9%

meal : > 15%

Prevention: When harvesting do not broke/broken and immediately dried → stored in low humidity

Chemical composition

BK: 92% EE: 48%

PK: 33% Gray: 2.6%

SK: 1.8% ETN: 15%

For cake

Are the results of the followup prosessing grains, especially nuts after its extracted


rude protein (PK)

coarse fiber (SK)

some of the starch


Content of PK for cake is higher than its original materials

PK for cake origin beans better than original grain (cerealia)

Quality for cake hanging prosessing (many-at least the oil left as well as the purity of the material


presses (mechanical) → hydraulic or manual

use a fat solvent (solvent)

Peanuts Meal

Is the result of peanut oil factory follow-up

Only in certain oil producing region for cake/peanut

Deficiency of lysin

In addition to pig feed ingredients also to cows & poultry

A good medium for the growth of Aspergilus flavus aflatoxin B → & G (Blue & Green)

The most excellent: B1 → are carcinogenic

On a pig called mycotoxin:

pale skin

appetite down

the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in serum rise → can reduce the concentration of vitamin A in the liver → pale heart (diskolorisasi)

Chemical Composition

BK: 84% EE: 12.5%

PK: 40.1% Ash: 6.2%

SK: 8.3% ETN: 32.9%

-SBM (Soy Bean Meal) (Glycine max, Glycine soya)

The results of the followup soybean oil mills

Best quality among the array of the amino acid glycine due for cake

Certain areas producing for cake

For cattle pigs better cooked in the past

→ can cause flabby fat when

given > 10% in ration

→ anti trypsin

→ Hemoglutinin

→ agglutination (penggumpal)

red blood cells (in vitro)

Chemical composition

BK: 84.8% EE: 5.2%

PK: 46.7% Ash: 7.4%

SK: 7% BETN: 33.7%

Coconut Meal (Cocos nucifera)

The results of the followup of the extraction of dried coconut meat (copra)

More easily obtainable

Deficiency of lysin

Oil 1 – 22%

1000 coconut → 180 kg 110 kg → copra oil; 55 kg for cake

For too long kept and > > → oil Rancidity can occur (ransiditas) → diarrhea

On dairy cow milk fat high →

For the beef: 1.5-2 kg/day

Swine rations for not more than 20% body fat → mushy

Chemical composition

BK: 89.6% EE: 10.6%

PK: 20.8% Ash: 4.8%

SK: 25.8% BETN: 39.1%

For cake palm oil or palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensin)

Is Palm oil factory follow-up results

There are many in Sumatra

There are 2 kinds of palm oil meal :

The following Palm kernel meal

Palm kernel Meal


dairy cow milk →

hard body fat → pigs

Chemical composition

BK: 89.6% EE: 10.6%

PK: 19.7% Ash: 4.8%

SK: 4.8% BETN: 39.1%

Seed "Kapok" Meal (Ceiba pentandra)

1 tree → ± 500 fruits (age ± 7 years)

It does not contain gossipol, but cyclopropenoid

Chicken → 2% in mixed rations

When > 2% growth rate → ↓

egg tetas resources ↓

Chemical Composition

BK: 83.9% EE: 6.7%

PK: 32.6% Ash: 8.3%

SK: 30.2% ETN: 22.2%

Sesame Meal (Sesamum orientale)

High PK content

Rarely given to cattle, but for humans

Good for cows & pig

Swine → body fat becomes soft

Chemical composition

BK: 93.5% EE: 13.5%

PK: 42.4% Ash: 12.8%

SK: 6.5% ETN: 24.8%

Leaves Protein concentrates (Leaf protein concentrate)

Obtained by grinding the leaves & mengepres leaf grinder until the results come out the water

Let stand so penjendalan, Pat dry & milled

Up to 40% at content; can as a substitution of fish meal

The role and function of the protein in beef cattle.

Protein function fix and replace damaged cells, mainly for beef or seniors.
Proteins play a role to help growth or formation of the cells of the body, especially for pedet as well as veal.

The protein plays a role in supporting the purposes of production, especially for productive adult cows.

Protein will be converted to energy, especially for the cows.
Veal growth phase requires a higher protein intake than mature cows. Protein is a substance that cannot be formed or produced within the body, allowing for sufficient protein needs, cattle had to get protein from the food supply. Therefore, the giving of the fodder must have sufficient amounts of protein for the growth and development of the cow.

Raw material source of protein is high protein feed. Such materials could be derived from animals (animal) and plants (plant-based). The source of protein fodder ingredients e.g. soy for cake for cake for cake, coconut, peanuts, rubber seed flour, flour and flour, shrimp meat. Soy beans which have already eliminated the Peel, soy bean extraction results for cake solvent often used as feed material. The process of removing the skin produce high protein content with rough fiber. soy bean flour coarse 33% protein, flour, cotton seed protein rough 41% (asfed), but can be also found in protein-containing kasar44 and 48%. Cotton seed flour are quite well-liked by livestock ruminan, but poultry and pigs are less like it dry), quality fish meal is influenced by material (types and body parts of fish), processing (drying or removal of fat), and storage, flour meat has protein and other food substances are different because the prosesing and its material, the feed Material is still rarely used for livestock rations for availability, still a little. This product is largely made up of body and head. Coarse flour protein content of shrimp is 47.95%.

From various sources


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