Penyakit Berbahaya Yang Menyerang Pedet

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Penyakit Pedet, Radang Usus (Diare) dan Radang Paru-paru (Pneumonia)


George Miller, Ellinbank

© State of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries

Semua anak sapi yang terkena berbagai mikro-organisme seperti virus, bakteri dan protozoa setelah mereka dilahirkan. Mikro-organisme ini adalah bagian dari lingkungan hidup ternak sapi dan harus memberi imunitas kepada pedet.

Menjaga pedet tetap sehat, harus memastikan pemberian colostrum dalam kurun waktu 6-8 jam lahir, memiliki akses ke tempat penampungan dan mendapat pakan.

Kedua jenis masalah utama dilihat pada anak sapi adalah:

• radang usus yang menyebabkan diare

• radang paru-paru

Kedua masalah tersebut berkonstribusi 80% permasalahan dalam penanganan kelahiran pedet. dengan penyakit diare yang paling umum. Gembung, sakit pada pusar, kecelakaan dan keracunan sebagai masalah lainnya.

radang usus yang menyebabkan diare

penyebab utama :

• E. coli (putih scours)

• Salmonella

• Rotavirus

• Cryptosporidia

Permasalahan ini dapat terjadi bersama-sama atau sendiri-sendiri.

Gejala-gejala yang terlihat :
diare
bulu kering
pedet terlihat lesu
beberapa kasus menyebabkan pedet mati dalam keadaan cepat

Diare disebabkan karena perubahan fungsi usus, karena serangan mikroorganisme yang menyebabkan usus berhenti mencerna, yang meningkatkan jumlah feses dan cairan ada ternak yang mati.

Pedet yang diberi pakan susu biasanya hanya mengeluarkan sedikit kotoran. Jika usus terkena masalah bakteri/mikroorganisme, maka jumlah kotoran akan meningkat secara signifikan. Misalnya, dapat menyebabkan 20 kali diatas normal. Cairan ini akan bercampur dengan garam dan bahan pakan lain sehingga pedet akan kehilanga lebih banyak dari apa yang dia makan. Hilangnya air dan garam akan menyebabkan dehidrasi. Hal inilah yang sangat mendadak dan dapat menyebabkan kematian. Dengan kata lain, kuman yang memulai menyerang alt cerna, biasanya tidak langsung penyebab kematian. Dehidrasi dan kehilangan garam sebenarnya adalah penyebab kematian.

E. coli atau berak putih. Mikroorganisme ini akan memproduksi racun yang membuat cairan berada dalam jumlah lebih banyak dari biasanya. Hal ini menyebabkan kejadian seperti diatas. Pada bedah mayat, yang sapi yang mati dari E. coli tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda mempunyai infeksi.

Salmonella. Ini menyebabkan menjadi kotoran berwarna merah karena invasi pada dinding usus yang masuk ke jaringan, sehingga air dan makanan tidak dapat diserap. Salmonella yang menyerang akan menyebabkan keracunan darah dan kematian.

Rotavirus dan Cryptosporidia. Biasanya bila pedet mengkonsumsi air susu yang masam. Mikroorganisme yang biasanya ada di usus akan meningkat pesat dalam susu asam ini, menghasilkan racun, sehingga usus bekerja lebih cepat dan menyebabkan diare. Air
dalam makanan juga akan hilang.

Pencegahan diare

• Menyediakan colostrum yang cukup dalam beberapa jam pertama setelah lahir. Beberapa jam pertama setelah lahir, pedet dapat menyerap antibodi dari colostrum untuk member imunitas dan mencegah infeksi. Diperlukan sekitar dua liter colostrum susu. Pada beberapa kasus Induk tidak memiliki cukup antibody dalam kolostrumnya untuk memberi perlindungan kepada pedet mereka.
Colostrum yang dibekukan akan sangat berperan dalam kejadian ini.

• Sediakan lokasi yang teduh dari cuaca dingin untuk menghindari stress. Kejadian stress sangat penting untuk memungkinkan kejadian diare.

• Manajemen dan pemberian pakan yang baik. Pemberian pakan yang terlalu banyak dan perubahan komposisi pakan dapat menyebabkan stres.

Perawatan diare

• Gunakan elektrolit dalam konsentrasi yang tepat

• Gunakan antibiotic bila diperlukan

Program perawatan :

a) Ganti semua susu dengan elektrolit.

b) Gunakan antibiotik jika perlu (saran pada dokter hewan)

c) Secara bertahap ganti elektrolit dengan susu selama beberapa hari.

Jika kejadian diare masih berlanjut, pedet perlu diinfus dengan cairan intravena. Memaksakan makanan akan menyebabkan radang paru-paru, karena saat pedet sakit, mereka tidak dapat menelan sebagaimana mestinya.

Pastikan anak sapi berada dalam keadaan hangat dan kering. Cuaca yang buruk akan melakukan hal-hal buruk.

Radang paru-paru

Radang paru-paru adalah infeksi paru-paru dan telah menyebabkan banyak kematian. Cacing paru-paru merupakan penyebab dengan menginfeksi paru-paru. Pedet yang dapat bertahan radang paru-paru, memerlukan waktu lama untuk sembuh. Biasanya akan terjadi gangguan pertumbuhan dan produktifitas yang rendah saat telah mulai berproduksi.

Pencegahan paling penting adalah penyediaan lokasi pemeliharaan dan sirkulasi yang baik. Stres yang disebabkan karena cuaca dingin, kondisi basah, dan pakan yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan radang paru-paru.


Diseases of young dairy calves

George Miller, Ellinbank

© State of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries

All calves are exposed to a variety of micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa as soon as they are born. These micro-organisms are part of the environment in which cattle live and calves have to develop an immunity to them.

Keeping calves healthy requires good calf management which includes selecting robust calves to rear, ensuring the calves have received adequate colostrum within 6 to 8 hours of birth, having access to shelter and ensuring the calves receive appropriate feeding.

The two major types of problems seen in calves are:

• Gut problems (scouring)

• Pneumonia

These two problems account for over 80% of all losses in calves, with scouring being the most common. Bloat, navel-ill, accidents and poisoning make up most of the rest.

Gut problems (scouring)

These can be divided into four major causes:

• E. coli (white scours)

• Salmonella

• Rotavirus

• Cryptosporidia

All these can occur separately or together. The visible signs as seen by the owner are scouring, a dry coat, the calf is dull and listless and in many cases dies in a short time.

Scouring is the result of changed gut function; that is, the germ makes the gut stop digesting, which increases the amount of manure and fluids the calf passes.

Calves on a milk diet normally pass only a small amount of droppings. If the gut is affected, the amount passed can increase markedly. For example, the amount of water passed in a scouring calf can be 20 times normal. This extra water is mixed with salts and other food, so the calf is losing more than it can eat.

The loss of water and salts leads to dehydration. This causes shock and death. In other words, the germ that started the scour is usually not the direct cause of death. It is the shock caused by the loss of body water and salts that is the actual cause of death.

E. coli or white scours. The germ produces a poison that makes more fluid pass out than normal. This causes the shock mentioned above. On post-mortem, a calf that died from E. coli scours will often show no visible signs of having an infection.

Salmonella. These cause marked reddening of the gut by invading the gut wall. The result of this invasion is damage to the tissue, so that water and food cannot be absorbed. Salmonella can readily invade the rest of the body, causing blood poisoning and rapid death.

Rotavirus and Cryptosporidia. These agents damage part of the gut so that food is not used. This particularly applies to milk, which then goes sour in the gut. The germs normally present in the gut multiply rapidly in this sour milk, producing poisons, and so the gut works

more rapidly to remove them hence the scouring. The water and food is also lost.

Prevention of scours

The most important method of prevention is to provide adequate colostrum (beestings) in the first few hours after birth.

It is only in the first few hours or so after birth that a calf can absorb the antibodies from the colostrum it drinks to give it immunity to many infections present in the herd.

A calf needs about two litres of colostrum milk. Remember that heifer cows that do not mix with the herd may not have enough antibodies in their milk to provide suitable protection to their calves. To overcome this, and problems with sick cows or cows dying at calving, a store of frozen colostrum should be kept if a freezer is available.

Remember that colostrum is more potent than any drug a veterinarian can sell.

Provide adequate housing or shelter from the weather to reduce stress. Stress is important in allowing scours to develop.

Maintain a suitable management and feeding system. Overfeeding and sudden changes of diet can cause further stress.

Treatment of scours

The most important thing to do is to replace the lost body water and salts. This is done by using electrolytes in their correct concentration. The earlier this is done, the better the response. Antibiotics can be used if necessary. A treatment program could be:

a) Replace all the milk with electrolyte.

b) Use antibiotic if necessary (on veterinary advice).

c) Gradually replace electrolyte with milk over several

days.

If calves are severely affected and will not drink, it will be necessary to call your veterinary practitioner to treat the calves with intravenous fluids. Force feeding can result in pneumonia, because very sick calves cannot swallow properly.

Make sure affected calves are warm and dry. Exposure to the weather when sick will make things worse.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is infection of the lungs and has many causes. Lung worms can play an important role in allowing infection to enter the lungs. A calf that survives pneumonia takes a long time to recover. This usually means stunted growth and poor production as an adult.

Prevention is most important and this is by having suitable housing with adequate ventilation. Stress caused by exposure to cold, wet conditions, overcrowding and inadequate feeding can allow a calf to pick up pneumonia.

Treatment depends on the cause of the infection. If pneumonia is occurring, consult with your veterinarian for a diagnosis (which is often difficult as several causes may be occurring together). They will recommend a treatment program.

Other causes of deaths

There are many other causes of losses in calves but they tend to be isolated. Sometimes these losses may be severe on individual farms and immediate help should be sought

in identifying the cause.

Things like plant poisoning, lead poisoning, leptospirosis, incidental infections and so on may all occur, because calves are curious and lick or taste any object lying around.

Make sure that nothing is available to calves that may result in illness.

Further reading

Donohue, G. et al (1984) Calf rearing systems, Melbourne; NRE.

Biasi, R. et al (1993) Dairy calf rearing – a brief guide,Warragul: NRE.

Moran, J. (1993) Calf raring – a guide to rearing calves in Australia, Melbourne: Agmedia

http://ekabees.wordpress.com/2009/01/03/penyakit-pedet/

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