Various Types Of Tea, Nutrition and How to prepare tea

Various How to prepare tea, Nutrition and Tea Benefits And Types of Tea
 The tea plant is an annual plant that is in berinama camellia tehifera, Teha synthesis, camellia and camellia Teha synthesis. Tea plant consists of many scattered sepsis Southeast Asia ', India, South China, Laos Northwest, northern Thailand, Burma.

Tea is the most popular beverage salasatuh the world, and its position is on the order of two after water. Tea has dikenalsejak beranbad centuries ago as a beverage relieving thirst and tension. Originally brewed tea directly from tea leaves and is better known as a drug rather than as regular soft drinks as it is today. The tea plant originated in India and spread almost throughout Asia, Australia, America and Europe. (Emma. S. Wirakusumah 2009).

We have had many types of food and drink teas that have sprung up. Which started as a driver of the popularity of tea in the global market in recent years are the results regarding foreign reset kekasiat or benefits, drinking tea, especially green tea. Active compounds that become the foundation of tea excellence in the maintenance of the health of consumers is "Cafechins" a polyphonol groups that are anti-oxidants. (Anonymous 2007). Results pemi; ihan developed countries have lengthened the list fumgsi health and disease prevention by cafechins that of the tea leaves.

The tea plant Cold Regions Anti On DroughtClimate is the most influential factor on the growth of tea, and require attention such as air temperature, rainfall, sunlight and wind. Climatic factors will also be related to the high place. As the plants from subtropical regions, the plant in Indonesia require cool air. The air temperature is good for the tea plant is daily temperatures ranging between 13-25 degrees Celsius, followed by bright sunshine and relative humidity during the day not less than 70%. Tea plants will stop growing when the air temperature is below 13 degrees Celsius and above 30 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity (RH) of less than 70%.

The tea plant is not resistant to drought, so it will only be suitable to be planted in regions with high rainfall and evenly throughout the year. Good rainfall for the tea plant should be an average of the last ten years shows the dry months rainfall is less than 60 mm is not more than two months, and there was no moon that did not rain. The annual rainfall amount should not be less than 2000 mm.

Sunlight is very influential on the growth of tea, the more light the more rapid growth, along sufficient rainfall. Sunlight also affects the air temperature, the more sunlight the higher the air temperature. When the air temperature reaches 30 degrees Celsius, then the tea plant growth is inhibited. Therefore, gardens in low-lying areas (400-800) need to plant cover crops permanent and temporary cover crops. Shade trees serves to filter and decrease the intensity of sunlight, so the air relative humidity decreases and increases. 

Besides mulching that spread out on the ground by a considerable amount, which is about 20 tons per hectare of fresh ingredients, can lower the temperature of the soil, which in itself lowers the temperature of the air above it. High soil temperatures may damage the roots, especially roots are in the most upper layer.Tea require shade trees. The function of shade trees on such a big tea plant, therefore the management of shade trees should be done as well as possible, when shade trees pruned and when to left, as needed.

The wind effect on the growth of tea. In general, the wind coming from the lowlands brings hot and dry air. This often affects the growth terhdadap tea. Strong winds blowing continuously for 2-3 days will cause the leaves to fall. The wind can also affect humidity and influenced the spread of pests and diseases. Prevention among others by planting windbreak trees along the boundary or side-by-side gardens usually take the wind yan.
The tea plant can generative propagated by seed or vegetatively by leaf cuttings. Generative propagation using seeds in this way, as a cross between a male parent tree to tree female parent. Vegetative cuttings material tea leaf cuttings can be taken from the garden parent. Twigs taken should have had 10-12 strands and twigs cut 10-15cm.The tea plant deployment area rerutama growing area between latitudes 30 ° north and south of the equator. Tea also grows well in soil that has a degree of acidity (pH) between 4.5 to 5.6. Namely soil types and soil Podzolik Latosol soil. In addition, the tea grown in soil that has a maximum effective depth (effective depth) and structured re¬mah more than 40 cm.

Temperatures preferred tea plants ranging between 13 ° C-25 ° C. The bright sunshine and relative humidity during the day not less than 70%. Average rainfall last ten years shows the dry months the rainfall is less than 60 mm.

Rain amount not less than 2,000 mm per year. The more sunlight accelerating growth, sufficient rainfall throughout. While the height suitable for tea plants, 800-2000 m above sea level or more.

POST-HARVESTTo produce high-quality tea, handling of harvested tea shoots as raw materials need to be handled as best as possible before it is processed. Currently according to market tea shoots processed into black tea, green tea, oolong tea and fragrant. Besides the taste of tea can be served in a variety of packaging products or drinking directly or mixed with other materials to make tea taste becomes better. Event 

processing technology aims to produce quality cafechin and caffeine are high because these compounds play a role in the formation of flavor, color, aromaserta are anti-oxidants that are good for health (Smith Salah Effendi et al {Johan, ME. And SL. Daimoenteh 2009} 2010). Gambung PPTK research results in the shoots of tea contains caffeine cafechin 11.7 to 26.5% and from 2.5 to 4.7%.

Table 1. Presetase Cafechin and caffeine content of the tea plant shootsThe top part of catechin (%) Caffeine (%)Peko 26.5 4.7Leaves 1 25.9 4.2Leaves 2 20.7 3.5Leaves 3 17.1 2.9Stalk above 11.7 2.5How to Harvest and shoots care must be taken to ensure the quality of tea is best obtained. How to harvest is done by picking shoot shoot, shoot in the hands of not too much, not too many shoots number dikeranjang, puciuk do not drenched with water, do not shoot baskets in the stack. While shoots treatment includes, the contents of the storage waring shoot no more than 20kg, transportation waring ketruk placed on the head and when lowered must not overlap and should not be crushed by other goods and transporting waring in the truck to be careful. Further processing of tea leaves arrive in the plant and processed into various types of tea.

Types of Tea.Tea grouped by way of processing. Tea leaves are plucked quickly wilt and oxidize if not fresh dried. The screening process will make the leaves turn black due to his existing chlorophyll breakdown and release of tasiin. Furthermore, the language of heating with steam so that the water content of the tea leaves to evaporate and the oxidation process can be stopped at the stage of pre-determined. Tea processing is done by the process of fermentation. Based on the processing of tea can be divided into 3 types:

1. Black tea (black tea)The bulk of the world's tea is processed into black tea and is one of the tea is very popular in Indonesia, America and Europe. The tea leaves undergo a fermentation process is perfect. Starting with the process of withering, rolling up drying. This type of tea has the aroma, flavor and color, having dark brown liquid brewed black and slightly bitter taste.

2. Green tea (green tea)Merupakn oldest type of tea. This tea is not fermented enzyme present in tea leaves that causes discoloration deactivated by steaming process for a few minutes. The resulting tea color green because Tamin that cause dark colors are not oxidized. Seduhannya green water. This type of tea is very popular in China, Japan and Islamic countries.

3. Oolong teaTea is the transition between black tea and green tea. The fermented tea is not perfect after the brewed liquid is golden brown.These three types of tea have health benefits because they contain biochemical bond called polyphenols including flavonoids. Flavonoids are a group of anti-oxidants that are naturally present in vegetables, fruits and minumnan such as tea and wine.

In addition to the above three types of tea there are still other types of tea are:1. Flavored teaIs the tea that is mixed with various other ingredients such as spices (ginger, cinnamon), fruit (lemon, orange peel) or various types of flowers (jasmine, gardenia, rose) with a composition tertentuk to get the taste and aroma is desired.2. Tea instantIs a type of tea that undergo further processing (soaked in hot water and evaporated) as a powder form. This type is very popular in the United States since 1950 and finally began to rage around the world, including Japan.3. decaffeinated tea (tea bebes caffeine)Tea that has undergone the process of removal of caffeine (an alkaloid in tea called tehine).4. Herbal teaTea not from tea leaves, but from other plants that the final product and the way they are presented together with tea, such as mistletoe tea, chamomile etc.Tea brewing TrueImproper brewing tea can lead to substance contained therein is lost. So it will not be the member benefits for the drinker. Brew tea properly is to use boiling water temperature of 80 ° C, the water temperature exceeds 80 ° C can make tea lose benefits for the body. Tea can be mixed with milk can reduce the stimulant effects of tea, because the milk will bind calcium stimulant substances in tea. Another way is to add lemon that often we know called lemon tea. Lemon will provide protection for digestion because of the citric acid in lemon prevent the crust on the wall of the bowel.Substance Nutrition Tea and Tea For Health BenefitsTea is a natural source of caffeine, theophylline and anti-oxidants with high levels of fat, carbohydrate or protein close to zero percent. Tea also contains polyphenols such as catechins (catechins) and flavanols. This compound acts as an anti-oxidant that captures bebes radicals in the body can also prevent the development of cancer cells in the body.Vitamins contained in tea are A, C and E, which serves to maintain eye health, heart, immune system and makes the skin smooth.

Based on the results penilitian tea culture in addition to refresh the body can prevent a variety of degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer can be prevented by drinking tea regularly. (Emma S. Wirakusumah 2009).

The presence of polyphenols and catechine as anti-oxidants in tea is able to strengthen the walls of the red blood cells and regulate permiabilitasnya, reduce the tendency of thrombosis, can menvegah oksidasikolesterol LDL in the blood, thereby reducing the occurrence of blood dipembuluih artehrosklerosis process that will reduce the risk of death due to coronary heart disease.

Theanine contained in tea can lower serotonin miter neurotrans that is believed to lower blood pressure, but it also has the effect teamin soft against the mental and emotional, because it gives singnifiserotonin effect.The release of dopamine will give persaan happy and improve mood so as to relieve stress.Dopamine and serotonin is associated with the ability to remember him consuming tea can also improve memory.

In one study found that women who drank two cups of atao more a day had a 50% lower risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared with those who did not consume tea. By him that tea is considered as beverages prevention of cancer such as skin cancer, lung cancer, esophagus, stomach, liver, small bowel, pancreatic, colon, uncertain bladder, prostate and ovary. Besides tea is also beneficial maintain the beauty of the body such as slimming.

Teh research results Climical American Journal Of Nutrition found the benefits of tea, especially green tea for slimming. Blend caffeine and 4% catechine able to burn more calories, catechine also inhibit the absorption of vitamin B1 which reduces blood sugar metabolism which in turn affects the betrat weight reduction.Catechine and polyphenols capable menvegah attack free radicals that can reduce damage to cells so that the aging process can be prevented. Polyphenol antioxidant sebgai have the power 100 times more effective than vitamin C and 25 times compared to vitamin E. ekstrat leaf tea can help shrink pores, disguise spots (black spots), acne, also provides nutrients to the skin.

Tea also contains astringent compounds that can help address and refresh the eyes are swollen and eliminate under-eye circles. Naturally tea also contains calcium fluoride which can prevent the growth of dental caries, prevent gingivitis and cavities. Nutrient content per 100g of dried tea tea as shown in Table 2 below.Substance Nutrition Green Tea Black Tea Jasmine TeaEngergy (K.Kal) 300 293 299Protein (g) 28.3 24.5 24.1Fat (g) 4.8 2.8 3.5Carbo hydrates (g) 53.6 58.8 59Fiber (g) 9.6 8.7 9.7Calcium (mg) 245 327 320Phosphorus (mg) 415 313 ​​185Iron (mg) 18.9 24.3 31.6Vitamin A (mg) 8400 2700 8400Vitamin B (mg) 0.07 0.3 0.07Vitamin C (mg) 230 9 85Water Content (mg) 7.7 8 8.1Food composition table Indonesia, Square 2009

Diversification Products Processed TeaTea is no longer just a drink but now packaged in a modern way. In the beverage outlets not seen on the packaging, but also taste. Currently there are about 17 flavors of tea are offered, such as fresh and flavorful tea roses, mint moroccant somewhat bitter and cool on the tongue until char tea that tastes like spices. Increased awareness of healthy lifestyle in big cities provide opportunities to repackage tea as a healthy beverage (Prawoto, I 2007). Modernization of tea a lifestyle is the revitalization of culture in terms of the tradition of drinking tea. Revitalization of drinking tea may be accepted in Indonesia because Indonesia has been known since the 17th century as one of the largest tea producer in the world.

Results of processing tea shoots become black tea, green tea, oolong tea and tea fragrance, can then be made. (PT Plantation Nusatara VIII. 2009).- Water bottle steeping like tea, tea boxes, tea packs, carbonization tea, tea alcoholic.- Tea extracts such as pure instant tea, instant tea and aroma, instant tea mix other materials, mee tea, tea in the form of capsules, tea sweets.- Tea packs as directly brewed tea, tea bags, tea with jasmine aroma, tea aroma mixed culam.- Tea for sour vegetables, crackers tea.- Medicinal tea (herbal mushrooms).- Dregs of tea for mulch or organic fertilizer.- Leaf-old tea leaves are used as dye fabrics or textiles.

Besides tea as refreshment, relieving thirst and tension that many people enjoy is also a health drink. Tea is a natural source of caffeine, theophylline and anti-oxidants with high levels of fat, carbohydrate or protein that is close to zero, the tea contains polyphenols such as catechine and flaponal, these substances in the form of anti-oxidants that can prevent a variety of diseases. Drinking tea regularly twice a day can reduce the incidence of heart disease, cancer, besides drinking tea to lose weight, prevent the growth of dental caries and prevent gingivitis and cavities.


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