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Pepper, Planting and Cultivating Ways Of Merica The Spicy Seasoning

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Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a tangible spice seeds. Pepper very important component of world cuisines, especially in the west (western) and is widely recognized as an important trade commodity. Lampung Province is one of the largest pepper producer in Indonesia. Indonesia has an important role in the trade of pepper in the world. Indonesia is famous for the supply of white pepper "Muntok White Pepper" and black pepper "Lampung Black Pepper".


The most important benefit is the main pepper as seasoning that can make sense of the cuisine to be delicious, flavorful stimulating, and keep warm. Hence in Indonesia pepper used special flavor enhancer passion cuisines.

Meanwhile in India where people are known to be highly seasoned dishes like pepper, so most of their pepper production for domestic consumption. In addition to cooking spices, pepper along with several other herbs and tubers are also used as an ingredient in traditional herbal medicine.


Pepper especially black pepper, often distilled to take the oil. Pepper oil with a distinctive scent that is used for a mixture of perfume.Cultivation Techniques / How to plant Pepper (Pepper)Choosing Plants Seeds Pepper Good


Pepper plant seeds can be made in two ways, namely generative (using seeds) and vegetative means (cuttings). Generative used when there is no material healthy cuttings were found. Seed material taken from seed that really is old, and isolated from the fruit is the fruit of the clusters wrapped on time is still of interest.While the pepper plant stem cuttings material good is: Derived from climbing vine that grows up and attached to the back of the tree. The length of cuttings at least 7 segment (can be taken continuously from one plant). Cuttings taken from the already somewhat woody stem and a plant that has been aged ± 2 years. The mother plant must be strong, good growth, and dark green leaves.
GROWTH CONDITIONS


Climate- Rainfall 2000-3000 mm / yr- Enough sunlight (10 hours a day)- The air temperature 20 ° C-34 ° C- Air humidity 50-100%- Shielded from the wind is too strong.Growing media- Lush and rich in organic matter- Do not waterlogged or too dry- The soil pH from 5.5 to 7.0- The color red to yellow red soil as Podsolic, Lateritic, Latosol and Utisol- Humus content of the soil as deep as 1-2.5 m- Slope / land slope up to ± 300- Altitude 300-1100 maslPREPARATION AND PLANTING PEPPERPreparation in the garden.

    
Provide climbing poles (supporters). Pole climbers there are two kinds:

            
Pole wood / concrete.
            
The tree of life (dadap oil, dadap thorn).

    
Climber poles planted with spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m.
    
Holes are made around the pole climber plants with a size of 50 x 50 x 50 cm.
    
If the sloping land make terraces or plant a cover crop.
    
On flat ground make waster water sewers.


Planting in the garden.

    
Cuttings planted directly in the planting hole that had been prepared near the pole climber.
    
Part cuttings are inserted into the soil is 4 books / segment.
    
Cuttings put his side near the soil surface.
    
Dugouts should first be mixed with the manure / compost taste.
    
Give protection on the newly planted cuttings.


MAINTENANCE.

    
Clean the garden of grass bullies.
    
Prune trees climbers, in the rainy season with heavy pruning and during the dry season with mild pruning.
    
Tie the plants on poles in order to plant climbers attached to the pole before the roots become strong adhesive.


    
Bound only branches that grow upward while the side branches is not necessary.
    
Dispose of branches at the base of the tree that covers the ground.Pruning.Aim :

    
To obtain the side branch (branch pieces) more.
    
To get a green tree.How to cut:

    
Pruning is done in segments that are not side branches.
    
If the plant already has 8 or 9 segments then had to be cut at a height of 25-30 cm from the ground.
    
Shoots that grow from the main stem cuttings should be cut as well and can be used as an ingredient pangkasannya cuttings.


    
Tendrils which later grew attached ketiang climber and when it has more than 10 segments are trimmed again to stay 3-4 first segment of prunings.
    
Pruning is done continuously until the tendrils reach the end of a pole climber.


PEPPER PLANT FERTILIZATION.

 
To get growth and high yield of pepper plants need to be given organic fertilizer (manure, compost) and inorganic fertilizers (fertilizers).Organic manure as fertilizer introduction is given by 5-10 kg per plant hole. For artificial fertilizer can be given Urea, TSP and KCL.Dose of fertilizer.Dose of fertilizer depends on soil fertility, plant age, and others. 


As a general guideline pepper fertilization with Urea, TSP and KCL can be explained as follows:a. For young plants:I. Age 8-12 months:Urea: 50 g / tree / year.TSP: 25 gr / tree / year.KCL: 20 gr / tree / year.II. Age 1-2 years:Urea: 100 gr / tree / year.TSP: 50 g / tree / year.KCL: 40 gr / tree / year.III. Age 2-3 years:Urea: 200 gr / tree / year.TSP: 100 gr / tree / year.KCL: 80 gr / tree / year.b. For plants that are already in production.Fertilizer is given as follows:Urea: 400-500 kg / ha / year.TSP: 400-500 kg / ha / year.KCL: 300-375 kg / ha / year. 

When fertilizing.Fertilization is done 2 times a year, namely at the beginning and end of the rainy season are given each half portion of the dose above.Method pepper plant fertilization.

    
Make a hole pdpuk / small trench around the base of the stem sejarak the tip of the tree canopy.
    
Mix urea, TSP and KCL according to the dose and then inserted into the manure pit.
    
After the fertilizer put back immediately covered with soil.
Note:Fertilizers can be supplied individually or as a mixture. Mixing Urea, TSP and KCL is only possible if carried out immediately after the mixing fertilizer, and fertilizer already mixed had to be discharged in a time of fertilization.PROCESSING OF PEPPER PLANT.There are two ways of processing of pepper, namely:a. To get the white pepper.b. To get the black pepper.A. To get white pepper pepper fruit is treated as follows:

    
Pepper freshly picked fruit put into sacks and soaked in running water.


    
After soaked then be cleaned; the seeds are separated from their husks and stalks, by way of being trampled, and then sifted. Once separated then soaked mustard seeds back in. 1-2 days so that the water flows into a clean white beans.


    
Once clean then dried in the sun to dry mustard seeds approximately 3 days.


B. To get the black pepper fruit pepper is processed as follows:

    
Pepper fruit after picking indirectly dipanas sun dried for about 2-3 days.
    
While drying the pepper fruit is separated from the stems.
    
Sieved to clean.Pest and Plant Disease Pepper


Pest. Stem Borer pest (Laphobaris Piperis)Characteristics: black, size 3-5 mm. Adult insects prefer attacking flowers, shoots and young branches. Other consequences if Nimfanya (young insects) in the form of a caterpillar will be bored into the stems and branches of plants. Control: cut branches or the trunk spraying with organic materials


b. Hama interestCharacteristics: The adults are black, wing-like nets, there is a bulge on his back, the length of the body of 4.5 mm and a width of 3 mm. Symptoms: adult insects / nimfanya attack resulted flower flowers damaged and cause failure of conception, the life cycle of about one month. Control: cutting the bunches of flowers or spraying with organic materials


c. Fruit pestsCharacteristics: brownish green insect, nimfanya wingless, translucent color and molt four times. Adult insects attacking fruits or nimfanya so empty fruit content. The eggs are usually placed on the surface of leaves or in bunches, the cycle life of about 6 months. Control: destroy the eggs on the surface of leaves, branches, and that of the fruit bunches or spraying with organic materialsDisease


a. Stem rot disease (BPB)Cause: The fungus Phytopthora palmivora Piperis Var. Symptoms: The initial attack is difficult to know. Section that starts at the base of the stem attacked showed blackish brown stripes under the bark. The leaves change color to faded (yellow). Prevention: planting disease resistant types of pepper BPB


b. JaundiceCause: The non-fulfillment of various requirements of the agronomic and smooth worm attacks (Nematodes) Radhophalus similis that may be associated with other nematodes such as Heterodera SP, M incognita and Rotylenchus similis. Symptoms: attacking the root of the pepper plant, marked yellowing of the leaves of pepper, hair roots die, rot and black. How quickly symptoms of yellowing leaves depending on the severity of infection and fertility of crops. Control: manure, liming, fertilizing and balancedNote: If the pest and disease control by using natural pesticides can be used not overcome the recommended chemical pesticides

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Peternakan dan Herbal Updated at: 01:51

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