The plane was sprinkling salt to make artificial rain
How to Make Artificial Rain with Salt
Materials to "influence" the process that occurs in the cloud is composed of two types:
1. Material for the "form" of ice, known as glasiogenik, such as Silver Iodide (AgI).
2. Material to "combine" the grains in the cloud atmosphere, known as hygroscopic, such as salt or sodium chloride (NaCl), or CaCl2 and Urea.
In Indonesia, efforts to "artificial rain" is necessary to:
1. Anticipation Water availability, eg filling reservoirs, lakes, clean atmosphere for the purposes, irrigation, power generation (hydropower).
2. Anticipation of forest fires / land, smog
1. Artificial Rain Process:
The nature of the rain cloud that caused by humans is used to make artificial rain. In accelerating the rain, people give a hygroscopic substance as condensation nuclei (silver dioxide, crystalline ice, dry ice or solid CO2). These substances are sown into the air by plane. Artificial rain-making referred to as a process of modifying the cloud by using chemicals, especially NaCl (table salt).
Long dry as we are experiencing now require businesses to face the challenges of climate. Long drought caused dry land, atmosphere is difficult to obtain, the river dried up while the winds blow away the dust-debuan. The climate challenge in the form of rain scarcity due to droughts can be done with a high-tech form of artificial rain. This method can not continue to be arbitrary because the cost is too expensive. Artificial rain is only taken when the situation was so critical state. Moreover, efforts to make artificial rain is sometimes the result is precise and sometimes miss or not as expected.
Experts who know the clouds, condensation, precipitation and other very helpful for doing business and experiment in modifying the weather to accelerate rain. In the manufacture of artificial rain they just make efforts to encourage and accelerate rain or trying to keep the steam atmosphere that has existed in the air condenses quickly so that the formation of a grain of atmosphere could soon take place in the cloud. The formation of a grain of atmosphere is a starting point rain.
This business is conducted by spreading chemicals or fine salt into the air with the aid of aircraft. For this stage the expected rain will not necessarily go down, because the process is carried further by deploying large grains in the cloud. The grains will collide and depend on the grain of this atmosphere will be heavy and will leave the clouds fall as rain.
In tropical areas, the cloud can be classified into hot clouds. To speed up the onset of rain can only be done through the process of cloud formation heat naturally.
2. The chemicals needed
To speed up the artificial rain to give a hygroscopic substance as condensation nuclei. Salts such as NaCl and CaCl2 in powder form with a hole of 10-50 microns, was quite hygroscopic if propagated in the air. The salts in the air will act as a starting point for the formation of vapors atmosphere at the cloud. The formation of the grains atmosphere can also be done by the spread of such salts.
Further action can be used urea powder. Urea powder deployment came hours after the deployment of salts before or after growth of small clouds in groups at several places. Besides urea powder can form clouds further, also be endotermi (absorbs heat) which is very good when it reacts with the atmosphere or moisture. Urea powder dissemination during the day to cool the surrounding environment so that small groups of clouds soon joined into large groups.
Cloud group are usually immediately looks somewhat blackish means the rain clouds have formed. The next action is the deployment of a solution that is composed of water, urea and ammonium nitrate in a ratio of 4: 3: 1 into groups of large black cloud that seems. The amount of solution that is spread between 50 u - u 100 microns atmosphere by using equipment installed in the aircraft. This solution is quite cold at around 4 ° C, which would bind the cloud and easily seep into the cloud, so as to encourage the formation of grains larger atmosphere because of the heavy grain of the atmosphere will drop and cause rain.
Salts that have been propagated in the air have certain physical properties, such as NaCl and CaCl2 when it reacts with the atmosphere may give off heat, while urea can absorb heat. Because of the time spread in the air will be a reaction as follows:
NaCl + H2O - ions + 910 K Cal (exothermic)
CaCl2 + H2O - ions + 915 K Cal (exothermic)
Urea + H2O - ions - 425 K Cal (endothermic)
The nature of such salts can be expressed as follows:
The nature of NaCl (table salt): crystalline, easily soluble in the atmosphere (36 g / 100 ml atmosphere rather than 20 ° C), in powder form is hygroscopic, many are in the air (from the atmosphere of the sea), a mixture of NaCl with ice liquid reaches - 20 ° C. While CaCl2 is crystalline.
Salt is not the table salt, but is salt has hygroscopic properties are much larger than table salt, so that the table salt can not be used.
3. Calculation of the right time
Before deploying salts climatological factors in that area should be taken into account. Deployment carried out at an altitude of 4000-7000 feet, with the calculation of wind direction and velocity factor which will bring cloud to a target area. NaCl and CaCl2 deployment should be done in the morning around 7:30, with calculations for cloud formation takes place in the morning (with respect to the evaporation).
Urea powder deployment is usually done at around 12:00, with the calculation of cloud in small groups have been formed, allowing the incorporation of the cloud in a big group. Large cloud group is that basically looked blackish.
When a huge cloud base blackish formed, around 15:00 made the spread of the mixed solution which has been stated above. The calculations in the hours that the clouds have formed.
Other calculations that must be considered is the weather factor that meets the requirements, ie containing vapor atmosphere with a humidity of at least 70%. Humidity should be sufficient so that a condensation nuclei (NaCl and CaCl2) is spread imminent condensation. Wind speed are also in the area of about 10 knots and there is no inversion layer in the air.
So the conclusion to accelerate the decline in the artificial rain to give a hygroscopic substance as condensation nuclei (salts NaCl and CaCl2) at the right time.
Artificial rain Ala BPPT
The government through the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) plans to create artificial rain. Here's how to make artificial rain will be done two institutions. Artificial Rain Head of Unit, F Heru Widodo said that the implementation of this program is not easy. Because, in this August's growth potential is very little cloud.
Initially, they had to map the cloud marginal able to react to rain. "We're going to map out the clouds marginal opportunity to grow," he said on the air base Halim Perdana Kusuma, Tuesday (25/8).
He explained, from mapping the marginal clouds, no points will be shot with seedman material. The material is expected to stimulate the clouds in order to bring down rain.
"Currently, we have prepared a seedling materials as much as 2.8 tons. Later seedling material that will be taken by the CN 295 aircraft belonging to the Air Force," he explained.
Heru asserted, for the initial phase is targeted artificial rain Also targeting West Java and Central Java. For other regions such as Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggar will follow.
"Awalannnya we started on this day to 90 days. Command center located at the air base Halim Perdana Kusuma," he explained
Fire point and Hotspots Still Flourishing
Hotspots and hotspots continue to grow even when sowing A total of 36.5 tons of salt (NaCl) was sown in Riau sky, but the results are not yet optimal. Artificial rain results of weather modification technology (TMC) has not been fully felt by the people of Riau.
Salt in cloud seeding has been done 21 times since June 22, 2015. The threat of forest fires and land (karhutla) increased. The influence of moderate El Nino will cause drier weather conditions and longer dry season until November 2015.
Modis satellite observation on Sunday (12/07/2015) there are 237 hotspots in Sumatra is 167 hotspots in Riau, North Sumatra (37), South Sumatra (14), Jambi (18), and Lampung (1). Smoke has caused a drop in Pekanbaru visibility 3 km, Pelalawan Dumai 1 km and 3 km. The air quality in the city of Pekanbaru in unhealthy category.
"BNPB together BPPT, KemenLHK and the Air Force continued to carry out artificial rain in Riau and South Sumatra. In Riau had 36.5 tons of salt (NaCl) were sown, "said Head of Data Information (Kapusdatin) and PR BNPB, Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, Sunday (12/07/2015).
Artificial rain in Riau until now using CN-295 aircraft the Air Force. While South Sumatra (South Sumatra), artificial rain using aircraft Casa 212-200 Pelita Air Service since July 9, 2015 by sprinkling