Terms Growing Shallots
Onion crop grows optimally at an altitude of 0-400 m above sea level, the open without shade with the lighting of approximately 70%, onion require sunlight long enough, sepor gentle breeze is good for the plants on the rate of photosynthesis and pembentunkan bulbs, onion grows well in fertile soil, friable, contains a lot of organic matter, sandy loam soil type, pH 5.5-6.5, and in harmony with good drainage.
Red onions can be grown on tidal land dengna make trench dengna befengan height or above average groundwater, red onions requires a lot of water for growth but does not like wet or flooded land.To land or moor land needed was prepared shallow wells springs (beje / Tabukan) around the planting area for watering.
Appropriate climatic conditions in South Kalimantan plantation can be carried out at the end of the rainy season in April-June and during the dry season months of July-August.
Land Treatment Techniques
Tidal Land / Around RawaCreated dam East-West direction with a width of 100-175 cm and length as the condition of the land, the distance between beds 40-50 cm, depth of trench 50-60 cm. Hoe soil drying rough first, to increase fertility, land preparation is done 2-3 times so loose and structure of the soil in the beds into crumb, to raise the pH liming with dolomite / kapatan size of 1 - 1.5 ton / ha granted the first tillage.Land ArmyPlowed land / tractor or hoeing as deep as 20 -30 cm, then made beds as high as 25-35 cm, width of 100-150 cm, the distance between beds 40-50 cm. Land cultivated until crumbly and liming with a dose of 0.5 to 1 ton / ha.
Preparation SeedThe seeds are ready to plant that has been stored for 2-3 months, the bulbs have dots grow roots or shoots have emerged shoots. In addition tuber must also originate from healthy plants and harvested in old age, which is characterized by a bright red color and the lists (not wrinkled). If the bulb feels soft or less dense at the time on hold, meaning the bulbs come from plants that have not been too tuda when harvested.
Seed requirements ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 tonnes / ha depending on seed size and plant spacing. Weight of the tubers can be divided into three categories: small tuber size from 2.5 to 5 g, was 5 to 7.5 g and large> 7.5 g. For the seed should not be too large (medium size). Bulbs that are too small to be easily rot if planted, in addition to the small size of seeds will produce plants whose growth is less good and the results slightly. Large tubers will produce rapid and healthy growth, but is much more expensive.
PlantingBefore planting, the outer skin of dried seeds and remnants of roots should be discarded. For tubers have not sprouted tubers end portion is cut with a knife kuran 1/3 - 1/4 of the length of the bulbs. When cutting must be careful in order not participate terpoton shoots. The purpose of cutting is that the bulbs grow evenly, stimulate the growth of shoots, accelerating the growth of plants, stimulating the growth of the bulbs side and encourage the formation of tillers. Before the bulbs are planted, cutting wound to be drained beforehand to prevent spoilage.
Made holes using a small penugal spacing of 15 x 15 cm or 15 x 20 cm. Seeds embedded 2/3, sovereign, when too deep to be easily decay. Tip bulbs slightly covered with soil, if too thick soil cover will inhibit plant growth. Once planting is complete, doused with water beds, roots will continue to grow after 5-7 days.
Fertilizer BasicsBasic fertilizer is given 3-4 days prior to that on the last tillage, fertilizer composition include: organic fertilizer (chicken manure) 5 tons / ha, SP-36 300 kg / ha, KCL 100 kg / ha of urea and 50 kg / ha. Giving Ternik or Furadan 3G as much as 20 - 5- kg / ha for nematicides and pests in the soil.
Supplementary fertilizerFertilization is done after pendangiran or weeding, fertilizer is given interrupted by creating an array of plants, fertilizer mixed and stir evenly.Fertilization I (15 days after planting), composition of fertilizers: Urea 50 kg / ha, KCL as much as 100 kg / ha and ZA 100 kg / ha.Fertilization II (25 days after planting), the composition of the fertilizer: KCL 100 kg / ha and ZA 300 kg / ha.
MaintenanceWeeding and weeding is done 3 times ie 2 weeks, 4 mnggu and 6 weeks after planting.Watering is done 1-2 days or if the seedbed looks dry, watering is done on the bed directly or LEB or flooding ditch system for dry land.Watering was stopped 10 days before harvest.
Pests and DiseasesPest
Leafminer (Liriomyza chinencis) spraying of pesticide active ingredient bensultap, klofenapir and siromazin
Onions caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubn) spraying with insecticide active ingredient pfofenofos, betasiflutrin, tiodikarb, carbofuran.
Thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind and Thrips pasvisipunus Karny) control with an effective insecticide active ingredient betaslifturin, piraklos.
DiseaseFusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum Hanz)
Spotting Purple / Trotol (Alternaria porri)
Anthracnose (Collectrotichum gloeospoiroides)Spraying with fungicides: Dithane M45, Benelate, Antracol and others.
Harvest and Post-harvest
Harvest was marked by 70% of the leaves turn yellow and fall crops, the leaves turn yellow and the bulb neck was empty, bulbs sticking out, and the tuber skin has been formed (in red). Harvesting for each different varieties ranged as between 60-70 HST.
Cultivated harvest is done when the weather is fine, the harvesting by pulling the whole plant and the tubers carefully. Yields bound of 1 - 1.5 kg per bond, withering or curing before the onions are dried in the field with 2 -3 days of drying in the hot sun with the position of the leaves on top.
Before seeds are drying 7-14 days in a drying up to dry askip, tubers and leaves dengna positions inverted. To determine the readiness of dried tubers askip which saves a few examples in a white plastic bag for 24 hours, when there is no water points in the bag, then it reaches dry askip. Seed is stored by being hung ties red onion on the rack in the warehouse at a temperature of 25-30 degrees Celsius and humidity of 60 -80%.