Origin and Type OnionsOnions are thought to originate from Central Asia regions (Palestine) which subtropical and began to spread to mainland Europe and India. Around the 16th century spread to the Americas, roughly coincide with the beginning of the hunt for spices by Europeans to the Far East, which eventually led to the occupation and colonization of countries in Asia, including Indonesia by Europeans.
In Indonesia, onions were found in Tanah Karo (North Sumatra), experimental plantings in the Karo plateau with an altitude of about 2000 m above sea level, obtaining very satisfactory results. Bulbs large enough and good growth. Seeds used for planting imported from the Netherlands.
Onions, also called onion east are in a lineage with red onions with the scientific name Allium cepa L. difference between shallots and onions are not too flashy, but its shape and smell / aroma.
Some varieties of onions:
Yellow Granex, characteristics: tuber flat round yellowish, scented medium.
Texas Yellow, Grano, traits: yellowish rounded tops, the scent was.
Grano, traits: yellowish brownish, medium aroma.
Red Creole, characteristics: flat round red, aroma / pungent odor.
Zittauer, characteristics: round flat brownish, slit flowering, many tillers.
Rijosbuiger "Oporto", traits: yellowish red round, production is very high.
Ebenezer Yellow, characteristics: round flat ocher, many tillers.
Short-day varieties of species that have been tried in Indonesia and the results are quite good, among others: Red Creole, Burmuda Yellow, White Burmuda, farly Early Grano and Patna.
Other types of long days is quite famous among Globe Danvers, Yellow Globe, Silver King and so on.There are many other varieties of onions that exist include Exel and White Creole that includes a group of short days, then Crystal Grano, San Yoaquin and California Early Red, which includes a group of the day was.The main use of this onion is for food seasonings and are generally limited to certain types of cuisine, the cuisine of Europe and China. However, lately the use of onions in Indonesia, more diffuse and more memasyarakat.Salah one that was never behind in the use of onions is the Steak or meat barbeque cuisine.
Terms Growing Onions
Plants like onions evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year. Onions including plants that require sun shines long enough, approximately more than 4 hours / day.If too short or in the shade / shielded so as not getting enough sun exposure, the results of production is low, it feels a bit tasteless and can be retained for long.Onions are very suitable in areas where the air is cool. The air temperature is good for plant growth is between 18-20 degrees C. At lower temperatures between 1-1.5 degrees C, onions still able to form a flower.
Air condition with relative humidity ranging from 80-90% (quite moist) is very good for growth.Soil to plant onions are fertile soil, humus and loose. The soil should be easy to pass on the water so it does not easily tarnish and solidified. The best type of soil is sandy loam or loam soil dust, the soil has a balanced ratio between the fraction of clay, sand and dust.
Soil that contains a lot of sand or alluvial soil can be used for the onions. But because the land is very fast forward like water, so it needs to be given manure or other organic material to improve water savings and increase fertility.
The best soil acidity is a little bit of acid to neutral, ie pH between 6 to 6.8.In the soil pH is less than 5, Aluminium salts dissolved in the soil can be toxic which could cause the plants become stunted.While the pH is too high, can not be absorbed Manganese salt onion plants so that the bulbs to be small and low production.
If the soil is too acidic, liming is necessary first to reduce its acidity.The optimum height suitable for the cultivation of onions is located at 1500 ± upwards
Procedures and Technical Planting OnionsPreparation SeedingOnion seeds are very hard to come by. This is because cultivation is still not as popular as onion and garlic.Procurement of seeds from seed imports is one of the alternatives that can be chosen. Of course necessary to find the types that correspond to the natural and climatic conditions of Indonesia.Other alternatives can also hold its own seed, either seed or tuber called sets.
Seeds from Seed
Planting onions can be done by using seeds that dipersemaikan first.With this seed, usually can be produced single bulb and an inexpensive way because the price is relatively cheap seed. However, in a tropical climate like Indonesia onions very difficult flowering and forming seeds.To be able to flower and form seeds, required average air temperature of ± 0.1 to 0 degrees C. In the highlands like Cipanas, West Java at an altitude of 1,100 m above sea level, in certain seasons that at night some types of onions can be flowering.To overcome these difficulties, taken the following way.
Tubers onions that will be planted to produce seed first stored at low temperature is 5-10 degrees C for approximately 3-4 weeks.
Bulbs are planted in an area that is cool, then that pollination goes well then it needs to be assisted.
Pollination is a good helper insects, such as honeybees. Therefore, the maintenance of honey bees in the breeding of onion very profitable.Another way to obtain seed onion is to bring in from abroad.When buying seeds imported in the market, selected seed varieties that are early maturing alias short days.The seed has not expired because if the expiry viability is very low and may even fail altogether.
Seedlings of Bulbs
Prepare the land to create a nursery. The ground is really fertile and friable.
Spray POC WarungTani I dose of 10 ml / liter of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200ml / 1.2 l / ha) and WT bactericide dose of 10 ml / liter of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200 ml / 1.2 l / ha), WT Trico / GLIO dose of 10 ml / liter of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200 ml / 1.2 l / ha).
Make furrows stocking from 7.5 to 10 cm. The distance between the grooves of about 30-35 cm.
Spread in the groove with scattered a little bit dense.
For seed needed fertile soil +100 kg / ha but if soil fertility was enough with 75 kg / ha.
When the soil is less fertile, should not be spread too much grain, enough with 50 kg / ha only.The seedlings were allowed to grow in accordance with the provisions of ordinary nursery but not thinning seedlings. It is intended to provide an opportunity for the continuity of natural selection. Nice and strong seed will grow well and the seeds that weak growth is not good to die.Once the onions forming young tubers, seedlings were harvested for use as seed.Size young tuber (tuber sets) can be grouped in three sizes.
Group sets great tuber tuber diameter of about 2-2.5 cm or weighs 6.3 grams.
The second group is the tuber sets being 1.5-2 cm in diameter with an average weight of 1.4 grams.
The latter, tuber sets are small with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 cm and weighs 0.5 grams.Preferably, tubers sets were larger than 2.5 cm are not used for breeding.Bulbs set small, below 1.75 cm size, should also not be used for seed because it can produce plants whose production is low.1.75 to 2.5 cm size is a good choice for the novice.
Another option for the procurement of seed onions is with Bulbs Tua. By using these bulbs can be produced by plants that berumpun.
Can also use the side tubers for seed. For seeds, chosen bulbs with medium size and uniform weighs between 10-25 grams. The tubers can be obtained by purchase in the market or by producing their own.Bulbs for seeds should be chosen that good quality, not disease or no signs of disease or pests.Do not use bulbs with disabilities, injuries, damaged or ruptured.Choose bulbs that are old, not shrink, solid, menthes and shiny.Bulbs for seed shall be derived from the harvested plants are old and have been kept for a long time, the tuber kawak.
Making the Media Semai
Seedbed digemburkan with hoe in about 30 cm, and then given a manure or compost fermentation, so the soil contains a lot of organic material.
Create a seedbed of a width of about 1 meter and a height of 10-15 cm.
Surface beds mashed chunks of land until smooth right and leveled.
If outskirts of beds easily degenerate or landslides, can be strengthened by the board or bamboo planks.
Seedbed seedbed formed by the north-south direction to get enough sunlight.
To protect seedlings from rainwater, need to be made peneduhnya, can be made from plastic sheets for roofs.
This roof mounted above the frame shade, with a height of 1.25 m was made in the East and 1 m in the west, sehimgga sunlight in the morning which is indispensable for the growth of onions can enter more into the nursery.
For each beds made three grooves with a groove spacing of about 25 cm and depth of the groove is approximately 5 cm.
Moisten the beginning until moist, then spray with a solution of POC WarungTani I dose of 10 ml / liter of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200ml / 1.2 l / ha) and WT bactericide dose of 10 ml / liter of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200 ml / 1.2 l / ha), WT Trico / GLIO dose of 10 ml / l of water (10 ml x 10 lt x 12 tanks = 1200 ml / 1.2 l / ha), let stand beds for 5-7 days.
Sow seeds / seedlings in the groove with a sprinkling rather rare, finely ground and then covered.
For each hectare of planting takes approximately 2-2.5 kg of seeds are needed. where per hectare need to be around 300 m2 seedbed seedbed.
Seedbed watered three times a day, ie morning, afternoon and evening with a smooth embrat or sprayer hole.
Nursery lest drought, but not to tarnish.
So that the nursery does not dry quickly, can be closed straw to reduce the rate of water evaporation from the surface of the nursery beds.
Seeds / seedlings seedlings begin to grow at 7 DAT. At that time the nursery can be weeded to eliminate weeds and other weeds.
Age 4 weeks, may be thinning seedlings.
After the age of 10 weeks, roughly the size of a pencil.
seedlings can be removed and planted in soil.
Before revoked, the beds watered used to facilitate the lifting of seedlings.
Seedlings / seeds removed with caution and should be used pencukil, for the following soil gouged.
Media Processing Plant
Soil conditions are to be achieved in the processing of loose soil, fertile, no tarnish, no acid, weed-free and so on.
Opening for the cultivation of onions should have been done since 2-4 weeks before planting and done when there is no rain so it is quite hard and dry soil, so as not to complicate the work and do not damage the soil structure.
Land for onion crop is digemburkan first with a light crumble with hoes, plows or tractors.
Then around the land made irrigation channels around the surrounding area, which is about 50 cm and width 50 cm.
Digemburkan land again in a little bit, make a transverse channel and cut land in width and about 40 cm.
The form of beds, with a small ditches in between the beds.
Drainage channel should be eliminated, instead shaped trenches between beds.
The width of the beds were made around 80-100 cm and length can be adjusted to the length of the land.
If the land is rather difficult to get water, enough beds 15-25 cm high.
If enough water or a little excessive, high cm.Parit 25-35 beds between beds made with a width of 35-40 cm.
Spacing onion is 25-40 cm between rows and 10-40 cm between plants in the row.
Some use a spacing of 10 x 25 cm, 30 x 30 cm, 40 x 40 cm.
Seedling nursery, usually used a spacing of 10 x 25 cm. But if the seed in the form of bulbs or tubers older sets, the planting distance is approximately 30 x 30 cm or 40 x 40 cm.
Spacing too tight is not good, and too tenuous was not economical.
With the seeds for seedlings, sandy soil make a hole with penugal that it is approximately 5 to 7.5 cm.
If the soil is clay or another, a hole depth of approximately 5 cm is sufficient.
Seedling transplanting seedlings into the hole with the roots straight down and ground ditimbunkan to the base of the stem with a slight pressure.
If used seed tubers or sets, made a hole with penugal to help plug seedlings to bed.
Seed tubers put into the planting hole tuber pieces roughly flat with the surface of the soil bed.
Position tuber cultivated upright with piece parts are at ground level beds. Do not let the seed tubers put in an inverted position. After that, the ground covered thinly.
Try planting onions can be done when there is no rain. Should be selected when the morning, when the sun is not too high, and while the weather is sunny.
If more rain or less friendly weather, planting should first be suspended until the weather allows for the cultivation.
Weeding the lawn should be done carefully so as not to damage the roots of onions. Can be done at the same time tilling the soil so that the surface does not condense beds.
Seedbed landslides or damaged restyled. Also the channels and ditches
Bulbs are starting to grow seems lifted by its roots until it appears on the surface, should be addressed so that the position of tubers covered with soil.
Weeding is done 2 times, namely at the age of 3 weeks and after 6 weeks old. Often when weeding or tilling the soil performed in conjunction with supplementary fertilization, as well as to immerse supplementary fertilizer into the soil.
Do not loosen the soil while still wet seedbed because it can compact the soil. Should be performed before the irrigation is given so that the ground is still dry seedbed.Fertilization
A week before planting, a raised bed at the moment given the manure / compost that has been fermented as much as 2 tons / ha. This fertilizer mixed into the soil while loosening and leveling the seedbed seedbed again. With the provision of these fertilizers will help improve soil structure, improve the capacity of the water, soil fertility and friability.
Then approximately 2-3 days before planting manure again that serves as the basic fertilizer. Seedbed soil leveled once again sinking into the soil fertilizer.Irrigation
Onions need a lot of water, especially during tuber formation.
Ahead of old growth, demand for water continues to drop and the harvest is better if not given water.
With the condition of the roots fibrous root system that is not too long, given irrigation must be reached and can be absorbed by the roots.
Meanwhile, planting of onions are generally carried out in the dry season that is just not a lot of available water. Therefore, the role of irrigation in the cultivation of onions become very important.
Watering can be done also with LEB system, by inundating trenches and channels
This system requires a lot of water at the time of planting, the water will be difficult to obtain (dry season)
In addition, the system can cause memadatnya ground LEB.
Some things need to be considered in the implementation of irrigation systems LEB is keep your watering can reach the root system and can be absorbed. Once is enough water in the irrigation ditch and channel needs to be dituras / disposed so as not to cause land becomes muddy.
Another better way is to pour water through embrat / sprayer / sprinkler.
Embrat use more suitable to irrigate land that is not so wide.
For the vast land, the use of more appropriate sprinkler.
However the use of these tools requires special equipment, the water pump and sprinkler.
The first watering is done immediately after the seeds are planted. The pile is wetted sufficiently.
After that, watering can be done once every two days is done in the morning and afternoon.
Noteworthy is the land of beds not to drought and also does not become muddy.
Watering is given to tuber formation reaches a maximum size, or was approaching old.
Pests and Diseases
PestPests that attack onions are pests bodas, leaf borer and so forth.Perform periodic spraying scr 5-7 days with insecticides onions.DiseaseDiseases that attack onions are upas dew disease, stem rot disease, patches of purple and so on.Harvest
Harvesting onions range from 4-5 months. Long-lived type that can reach 5 months, was short-lived usually less than 4 months.
If the plant is used to produce tubers for seed, harvesting is done at an older age than tuber crops for consumption.
Characteristics that can be used to observe current good harvest is discoloration of the leaves and stem tuber neck.
If the ends of the leaves begin to turn yellow and the bulb's neck had subsided, means harvest time is near
If 30% of the crop already mengulai leaves, the plants can be broken down to accelerate the aging of tubers and a few days later onions can be harvested already. Do not be left too long because the bulbs in the ground in such circumstances can degrade the quality of tubers.
Do not harvest the tubers are too young because the tubers are less dense and if it is stored will be much shrinkage, easily rot and wrinkles.
Harvesting is by uprooting.
If the hard revoked or brittle leaves, can be helped with unpacking beds.
Harvest between before the stem is completely dry and tough enough to be revoked.
Harvesting should be done when the weather is sunny, not much less rain cloudy. Preferably the morning while the sun is not blazing and the dew has disappeared.
Once revoked, temporarily leave the tubers and stems are stored on the beds so that bit drier. Onggokkan aligned such that root-tuber buried under leaves. Thus, the bulbs will be spared the direct sun and heat exposure
Furthermore, bulbs can be transported to a drying
Before the sale is better if bulbs sorted first
Bulbs damaged, injured or exposed to pathogens is separated into separate groups. Soil still clinging to the roots cleaned.
The stalks are cut approximately 2 cm above the bulb neck. Do not cut too short to not hit the bulb that can cause injury and facilitate affected by pests or diseases.
The outer shell are already visible peeling discarded piece so that the tubers appear shiny, clean and bright.
Bulbs are classified according to size, namely in groups large, medium and small.
Can be used for packing sacks or containers that provide clean air circulation inside the container.
Storage in the rack above the fireplace in the kitchen or in the warehouse can be used to store onions.
Drying onions done by drying or by using artificial dryers
Keep drying can run fast so as not to dry the possibility of damage can be avoided.