BeefAhead of Ramadan and Eid, the demand for meat is usually jumped dramatically. Rogue traders usually take advantage of this opportunity to sell the meat which has been stored in the freezer. Many are due to poor storage methods make the meat becomes damaged. In order to get a high profit, the broken meat still sold by the merchant. Market operations are normally held by the government ahead of Ramadan and Eid always found these broken meat that continues to be sold by rogue traders or sometimes seasonal traders / merchants relapse only comes ahead of Ramadan.
Anticipating it's good if a little consumer equipped with knowledge about the good and the meat is still fit for consumption so as not to be fooled buy meat broken or expired. Minimal consumers should know mengenail meat quality is good and bad.The quality of meat is a collection of properties / characteristics / factors that distinguish the meat satisfying level or acceptability of the meat for the consumer / purchaser.There are several factors that determine the quality than the meat itself that can be measured and can not be measured directly from the meat. Thus required test quality meat.
As for testing the quality of the meat can be:Organoleptic testing
Tests on the quality of meat that can be done using human senses, such as test color, smell, taste, texture.
Tests on the quality of meat that can be done with physical menggunakaninstrumen, such as pH meters, tenderometer, refractometer, thermometer.
Tests on the quality of the meat is done to determine the chemical composition and nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals. In addition it can also be used to determine the presence of other additives, such as the addition of hormones, preservatives, as well as heavy metal pollution in the flesh.
Tests on the quality of the meat is done to determine the type and number of microbes on meat, because meat is a perishable foodstuffs (perishable food). Microbiological test is done in the hope that the meat that are sold do not contain E. coli bacteria and Patoghen.Testing is a series of activities undertaken to test the safety and quality of animal products to the element of danger (hazards) and contamination.
Quality MeatQuality is a combination of product attributes are assessed by organoleptic and used by consumers to choose products. On meat and processed meat products, meat quality is determined by the quality of the nutritional composition (ratio of non-fat meat with fat) and palatability which includes sightings, textures (juiciness and tenderness) and flavor.
Visually, the quality of meat judged on color, marbling, and water holding capacity (water holding capacity, WHC). Meat assessed good quality if it has a uniform color and marbling in the meat pieces and the overall appearance of a dry surface due to the nature of its WHC good. The existence of marbling not only affect the appearance, but also increases the juiciness, tenderness and flavor of processed meat products. Meanwhile, water holding capacity in addition to affecting the appearance also will affect the juiciness of processed meat products.
Flesh colorPerceptions of the color of the meat, raw or cooked, influencing consumer decision in selecting meat and dairy products. Meat with deviating color is regarded as low-quality meat.
Myoglobin is the main pigment of meat and concentration will affect the intensity of red meat. Differences in levels of miglobin cause differences in the intensity of the color of meat. Factors that influence the levels of myoglobin are the species, sex, age and physical activity of animals. This explains why beef redder than pork and pork redder than chicken; or why meat male animals, old animals and / or thigh meat more red than female animals, young animals and / or breast meat.
The color of the meat is also affected by handling and storage conditions. Types of packaging, as well as the temperature and the amount of time can affect the color of the meat. It is caused by changes in the oxidation state of myoglobin that causes discoloration of the meat.
When fresh meat is cut, then the beginning of the visible color is purplish-red color from myoglobin. After a while exposed to oxygen in the air, the surface of the fresh meat will change color to bright red because the oxygenation of myoglobin into oksimioglobin.
Meat surface in contact with air for a long time, will be brown, because oksimioglobin oxidized to metmyoglobin. Although the discoloration is normal along the distinctive smell of the meat is still fresh, but indicate that the meat has been somewhat longer exposed to the air so it should immediately be frozen if not cooked immediately. If the meat is brown and no longer smell typical of fresh meat, then this condition indicates that the meat has been stored in refrigeration for a long time.
Deviations smell is a sign that the meat has been damaged (foul) and should not be consumed.Type of packaging will affect the color of fresh meat. Beef tenderloin beef, packaged in vacuum packs will have a purplish red color. The cause is the lack of oxygen in the vacuum packaging. If meat is removed from the vacuum packaging and contact with air, the surface color will be bright red meat while the inside remains red-purplish because oxygen can not penetrate to the inside of the meat. Here we can see that the red and red-purple is the natural color of fresh meat.
The beef is ground and packaged in a closed container with good oxygen permeability film, usually bright red. Ground beef that is inside the red-purple. If the meat is contacted with the section in the air, then the color will change to red light.
Cooking meat at temperatures above 80 ° C causes the pigment denatured and meat color changed to brown gray which is the typical color of fresh meat is cooked. In the meat processing using salt nitrite (curing process), for example in sausages and corned beef, nitrite reactions with myoglobin produce nitrosomioglobin which when heated (cooked) at temperatures above 65oC will produce a stable pink color.
Meat juicinessJuiciness or impression juicy meat products is influenced by the amount of water that can be maintained to remain in the meat after it is cooked; and the production of saliva (saliva) during mastication. Water holding capacity (WHC) of meat will affect how much water can be retained in the product while marbling fat levels will help stimulate saliva formation.
WHC is the ability of meat to retain water content (free) by the time under pressure from outside, such as process heating, grinding or pengepressan. WHC meat with good characteristics will usually result in a product with good character juiciness. Meat protein denaturation due to a decrease in the pH of the meat several times after slaughter, will cause a decline in meat WHC. As a result, the meat was not able to maintain the broth during the cooking process and the resulting product will taste dry (the water is lost during processing) and tasteless (wasted water soluble flavor components along the water that comes out).Withering process (aging) of meat can increase the WHC of meat so juicinessnya can be improved.WHC may change due to ripening and cause influence on the juiciness of the product. Improved cooking temperature will increase protein denaturation so WHC decreased and juicy character of the product is also reduced.
Marbling is a popular term for intramuscular fat. Visually, marbling visible as white fat granules scattered among the flesh.
Juiciness increased when levels of marbling increases. Marbling that melts during the ripening and release during mastication together with some of the water will increase the sensation of meat-free meat juice. Indirectly, fat also affects the juiciness of the meat by inhibiting evaporation of water during cooking.
The research also noted a correlation between the levels of marbling with delicacy (palatability) meat overall. If the marbling fat content of less than 3%, and decreased palatability of the meat is not acceptable to consumers. Marbling content of high (over 7.3%) was also providing negative perceptions associated with increased consumption of fat and its relationship with coronary heart disease, obesity and cancer.Tenderness or tenderness of meatTenderness of meat greatly influence consumer perceptions in assessing the quality of the meat. Soft impression involves the following three aspects: ease of penetration of the teeth into the meat, ease of chewing the meat into pieces smaller and the amount of residual (waste) left after mastication.Species, age and sex of the animal will determine the texture of the meat.
Meat with a smooth texture soft easier than the coarse texture. This is why beef takes longer to mengempukannya than pork, lamb or chicken. An increase in muscle fiber size with increasing age causes the texture of meat from older animals will be more rugged and tenderness will decrease. Of sex is generally known that male animals meat has a rougher texture of the meat females.
Meat (muscle) that many moves, such as meat calf section, will have a more coarse texture and become less soft when compared with the meat (muscle) located on the rare-driven, such as meat from the back. Increasing the number of connective tissue in the meat will reduce the tenderness of meat while the presence of marbling fat would increase keempukannya.
Withering process (aging) is one common way to mengempukan meat. Withering is done by storing the meat in the refrigerator where the temperature is controlled, for 2-4 weeks, which gives an opportunity to the enzymes present in the meat to cut meat proteins (myofibrils) and connective tissue so that the meat becomes more tender. The catering services, meat pengempu this process can be done by adding a protease enzyme into the meat.
Cooking can increase or decrease the tenderness of meat, depending on the temperature and cooking time. Cooking temperature will affect protein kealotan miofibrilar while longer cooking time will affect the process of softening of collagen (a protein in connective tissue).
During cooking, miofibrilar protein denaturation and shrinkage that occurs at a temperature of 40 - 45oC and continues to rise at 60 ° C led to increased violence meat. Instead, the protein collagen present in the connective tissue will undergo breakage into gelatin and improve the tenderness of meat at cooking temperatures above 65oC. Therefore, to obtain the tender meat, consider the characteristics of the meat to be cooked. Cooking the meat should be done at an internal temperature not too high, with a short time if the meat contains very little connective tissue and a longer time if the connective tissue is higher.
Flavor or aroma of meatFlavor meat is produced from a combination of various components that stimulate the olfactory and taste receptors in the mouth and nasal tract. Forming compounds, especially meat flavor components of the breakdown of proteins (peptides and amino acids), water-soluble aroma components and reducing sugars. Differences in the type and composition of fat cause slight variations in the flavor of meat from different animals when meat is cooked.
Maillard reaction which is the reaction between the hydrolyzed meat proteins, peptides and amino acids with reducing sugars play an important role in producing cooked meat flavor. Factors aw, pH, temperature and heating time will affect the type and intensity of flavor components produced by cooking meat. This reaction takes place aw optimum in the range of 0.5 - 0.8, high pH with temperature between 100 ° C (boiled beef flavor) and 180 ° C (fried bacon flavor).
Differences in the way of cooking will produce a different flavor. For example, the meat is cooked with dry cooking techniques, flavor only formed at the surface of the meat moist while cooking technique allows the reaction to take place up to the formation of flavor in the meat section. The existence of the other components during the process of curing and curing meat will also produce meat products with a distinctive flavor.
Marbling fat also affects the flavor. Meat with low marbling than look dry also has a weaker flavor than meat with more marbling. Research shows that 8-9% fat marbling in the steak will produce good flavor while increased fat above 9% will give an oily flavor.How to distinguish the various livestock meat corresponding physical test meat, among others:
Veal: pale red color, delicate fibers, mushy consistency, smell and taste different from adult beef,
Adult cows: more red color, smooth stringy, viscous consistency, smell and taste typical cow.
Sheep: pink, lots of fat diotot, fine fibers, distinctive smell of sheep.
Pig: the color of pale pink, gray back muscles fat white, fine fibers, solid consistency, typical smell of pigs.
Horses: red-black, long fiber, no fat in fiber, sweet smell (glycogen) and fat golden yellow.
Chicken: pale white, chest-thigh chewy, typical fishy smell of chicken meat.