Feed ingredients should be readily available and where there may be in the area so as not to cause a problem of transportation costs and the difficulty for it;
Guaranteed availability of feed ingredients must at all times in sufficient quantities purposes;
Feed materials must have a decent price and where possible have big fluctuations in prices;
Feed ingredients cultivated not compete with the very primary human needs. Had must use the feed material so try in order to use one of these;
Feed ingredients should be replaced with other feed ingredients that contain food substances are almost equivalent;
The feed material is not toxic and does not forged or do not show differences in color, odor or taste of a normal state.
According BPMPT (2011), the ruminant feed consisting of forage as a source of fiber. Forage is a basic feed ingredients ruminants which generally consists of leaves derived from grasses, crop seeds or nuts.
Feeding can be done in three ways: namely grazing (Pasture fattening), kereman (dry lot faatening) and a combination of the first and second ways:
Grazing systems (Pasture fattening), is a grazing system by removing the cows in the pasture, which is usually done in an area that has a wide enough, and takes about 5-7 hours per day for cattle mengembalakan.
Kereman Systems (cleaning lot fattening) is a system that graze animals in the cage, Livestock not removed, the feed can be given by way of rationed / presented. Cows are housed and feed derived from the fields, paddy / elsewhere. Every day the cows need feed approximately 10% of their body weight and also feed an additional 1% - 2% of body weight. Additional rations in the form of fine bran or bran, coconut cake, cassava, pulp given by way mixed in the grass in the feed. In addition, the mineral can be added as a reinforcement in the form of salt, lime. Cattle feed in the form of a mixture with a certain amount and ratio.
System is a combination of the first and the second way is the system of livestock grazing and grounded. Feeding cows the best is a combination of grazing and keraman. According to circumstances, the type of forage is divided into three categories, namely fresh forage, dry forage and silage. Kinds of fresh forage is grass, beans (legume) and other green plants. Good grass for cattle feed is grass, grass monarch (king grass), turi leaves, leaf lamtoro.
Giving the amount of feed by cattle as calves period until heifers, pregnant period, dry period and lactation. In calves granting higher concentrations than grass.
In the form of grass feed for adult cattle are generally given as much as 10% of body weight (BW) and additional food as much as 1-2% of BB.
Cows that are nursing (lactation) require additional food by 25% forage and concentrates in the rations.